Nicescroll 是一个 jquery 插件，用非常类似 ios/移动样式不错滚动条。文章最后附DEMO可以直接运行。本网站已经使用了这种滚动条特效！

现在还支持水平滚动条 ！

容易使用解决方案有桌面、 平板电脑和电话设备自定义滚动条车型。

它支持 Div、 Iframe、 文本区域、 和文档页 (身体) 滚动条。

兼容性一览

与所有的桌面浏览器兼容： 火狐 4 +，Chrome 5 + Safari 4 + (win/mac)，Opera 10 + IE 6+。（所有 A 级浏览器)

与移动设备兼容： iPad Iphone、 Android 2.2 +，黑莓手机与 Playbook （WebWorks/表 OS）、 Windows Phone 7.5 芒果和 Windows Phone 8。

兼容所有触摸设备： iPad，窗口表面。

Compabible 与多输入设备 （鼠标触摸或笔）： 窗口表面、 上的铬桌面触摸笔记本。

2 方向小鼠与兼容： 苹果魔法鼠标苹果笼式启动与 2 dir 轮子，PC 鼠标用 2 dir 轮 （如果浏览器支持它）。

在现代的浏览器的硬件加速滚动实施了。

使用 animationFrame 的平滑和 cpu 节能的滚动。（如果浏览器支持）

使用方法

它是一个 jquery 框架的插件，您需要在您的脚本中包括 jquery 插件

从 1.5.x 以上版本。（您也可以尝试用 1.4.x）

**安装**

放在 jquery 脚本标记后并且要在调用方法之前

<script src="jquery.nicescroll.js"></script>

**例子**

1.简单模式，则该样式文档滚动条 （html 元素首选）：

$(document).ready( function() { $("html").niceScroll(); } );

2.与返回的对象的实例：

var nice = false; $(document).ready( function() { nice = $("html").niceScroll(); } );

3.设置 DIV 的样式和更改光标的颜色：

$(document).ready( function() { $("#thisdiv").niceScroll({cursorcolor:"#00F"}); } );

4.与"包装"，形成由两个 div DIV 第一种是 vieport，后者是内容：

$(document).ready( function() { $("#viewportdiv").niceScroll("#wrapperdiv",{cursorcolor:"#00F"}); } );

5.获取 nicescroll 对象：

var nice = $("#mydiv").getNiceScroll();

6.隐藏滚动条：

$("#mydiv").getNiceScroll().hide();

7.滚动条大小调整 （当检查内容或位置已更改）：

$("#mydiv").getNiceScroll().resize();

更多的功能请参阅DEMO页面

配置参数

当调用“niceScroll”你可以传递一些参数来定制视觉方面：

cursorcolor - 十六进制改变光标颜色，默认值是“＃000000”

cursoropacitymin - 改变不透明度非常光标处于非活动状态（scrollabar“隐藏”状态），范围从1到0，

默认为0（隐藏）

cursoropacitymax - 改变不透明度非常光标处于活动状态（scrollabar“可见”状态），范围从1到0，默

认值是1（完全不透明）

cursorwidth - 像素光标的宽度，默认值为5（你可以写“加入5px”太）

cursorborder - 游标边框css定义，默认为“1px的固体＃FFF”

cursorborderradius - 以像素为光标边界半径，默认为“递四方”

zIndex的 - 改变z-index值的滚动条的div，默认值是9999

scrollspeed - 滚动速度，默认值为60

mousescrollstep - 高速滚动鼠标滚轮，默认值是40（像素）

touchbehavior - 使光标拖动滚动像在台式电脑触摸设备（默认：false）

hwacceleration - 使用硬件加速滚动支持的时候（默认：true）

boxzoom - 使变焦框中的内容（默认：false）

dblclickzoom - （仅当boxzoom = TRUE）变焦激活时，双击对话框（默认：true）

gesturezoom - （仅当boxzoom =真实，使用触摸设备）上缩放框激活时，间距输出/输入（默认：true）

grabcursorenabled，显示“抢”图标的div touchbehavior = true时，（默认：true）

autohidemode，如何隐藏滚动条的作品，真=默认/“光标”=只进游标隐藏/ false =不隐藏

背景，CSS改变轨道的背景下，默认为“”

在加载事件iframeautoresize，AUTORESIZE的iframe（默认：true）

cursorminheight，设置在像素的最小光标高度（默认值：20）

preservenativescrolling，您可以滚动本机可滚动区域用鼠标，冒泡鼠标滚轮事件（默认：true）

railoffset，您可以添加抵消顶部/左边的轨道位置（默认：false）

bouncescroll，使滚动弹跳在内容结尾作为移动像（仅HW ACCELL）（默认：false）

spacebarenabled，使向下翻页时，空格键已经按下滚动（默认：true）

railpadding，设置填充为铁路吧（默认值：{顶：0，右：0，左：0，下：0}）

disableoutline，对于chrome浏览器，停用大纲（橙色hightlight）选择具有nicescroll一个div（默认：

true）时，

horizrailenabled，nicescroll可以管理水平滚动（默认：true）

railalign，取向垂直导轨（defaul：“右”）

railvalign，对齐水平导轨（defaul：“底部”）

enabletranslate3d，nicescroll可以使用CSS转换为滚动内容（默认：true）

enablemousewheel，nicescroll可以管理的鼠标滚轮事件（默认：true）

enablekeyboard，nicescroll可以管理键盘事件（默认：true）

smoothscroll，滚动自如移动（默认：true）

sensitiverail，点击轨道上进行滚动（默认：true）

enablemouselockapi，可以用鼠标说明锁的API（对象拖动同样的问题）（默认：true）

用于光标在像素cursorfixedheight，设置固定的高度（默认：false）

hidecursordelay，设置在微秒淡出滚动条的延迟时间（默认值：400）

在对方向锁定激活像素directionlockdeadzone，死区（默认值：6）

nativeparentscrolling，检测内容底部，并让家长来滚动，作为原生滚动做（默认：true）

enablescrollonselection，启用自动滚动的内容时，选择文本（默认：true）

简单完整实例

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" /> <title>jQuery NiceScroll plugin - scrolling for desktop, mobile and touch devices</title> <script src="js/jquery.min.js"></script> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("html").niceScroll({styler:"fb",cursorcolor:"#000"}); }); </script> </head> <body> <div id="header" class="pagepaddings"> <div class="nicescrolltitle"> <h1>Nicescroll 3</h1> <h2>jQuery plugin for a better scroll<br /> on desktop and mobile device</h2> </div> </div> <div class="pagemargins" id="thepage"> <div class="txtblock"> <h1>Here you find some usage examples</h1> <p>Nicescroll is very powerfull and very customizable, but nice to use.</p> <p>This examples can works on all major browsers and mobile devices.</p> <p>Notify me if you find issues. Github tracker has preferible.</p> </div> <div class="txtblock"> <h1> Simple scrollable div</h1> <div id="divexample1"> <p>In number theory, Fermat's Last Theorem states that no three positive integers a, b, and c can satisfy the equation an + bn = cn for any integer value of n greater than two.</p> <p>This theorem was first conjectured by Pierre de Fermat in 1637, famously in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin. No successful proof was published until 1995 despite the efforts of countless mathematicians during the 358 intervening years. The unsolved problem stimulated the development of algebraic number theory in the 19th century and the proof of the modularity theorem in the 20th. It is among the most famous theorems in the history of mathematics and prior to its 1995 proof was in the Guinness Book of World Records for "most difficult math problems".<br /> Contents<br /> [hide] </p> <p> 1 Fermat's conjecture (History)<br /> 2 Mathematical context<br /> 2.1 Pythagorean triples<br /> 2.2 Diophantine equations<br /> 3 Fermat's conjecture<br /> 4 Proofs for specific exponents<br /> 5 Sophie Germain<br /> 6 Ernst Kummer and the theory of ideals<br /> 7 Mordell conjecture<br /> 8 Rational exponents<br /> 9 Computational studies<br /> 10 Connection with elliptic curves<br /> 11 Wiles' general proof<br /> 12 Did Fermat possess a general proof?<br /> 13 Monetary prizes<br /> 14 In popular culture<br /> 15 See also<br /> 16 Notes<br /> 17 References<br /> 18 Bibliography<br /> 19 Further reading<br /> 20 External links</p> <p>[edit] Fermat's conjecture (History)</p> <p>Fermat left no proof of the conjecture for all n, but he did prove the special case n = 4. This reduced the problem to proving the theorem for exponents n that are prime numbers. Over the next two centuries (1637C1839), the conjecture was proven for only the primes 3, 5, and 7, although Sophie Germain proved a special case for all primes less than 100. In the mid-19th century, Ernst Kummer proved the theorem for regular primes. Building on Kummer's work and using sophisticated computer studies, other mathematicians were able to prove the conjecture for all odd primes up to four million.</p> <p>The final proof of the conjecture for all n came in the late 20th century. In 1984, Gerhard Frey suggested the approach of proving the conjecture through a proof of the modularity theorem for elliptic curves. Building on work of Ken Ribet, Andrew Wiles succeeded in proving enough of the modularity theorem to prove Fermat's Last Theorem, with the assistance of Richard Taylor. Wiles's achievement was reported widely in the popular press, and has been popularized in books and television programs.<br /> [edit] Mathematical context<br /> [edit] Pythagorean triples<br /> Main article: Pythagorean triple</p> <p>Pythagorean triples are a set of three integers (a, b, c) that satisfy a special case of Fermat's equation (n = 2)[1]</p> <p> a^2 + b^2 = c^2.\ </p> <p>Examples of Pythagorean triples include (3, 4, 5) and (5, 12, 13). There are infinitely many such triples,[2] and methods for generating such triples have been studied in many cultures, beginning with the Babylonians[3] and later ancient Greek, Chinese and Indian mathematicians.[4] The traditional interest in Pythagorean triples connects with the Pythagorean theorem;[5] in its converse form, it states that a triangle with sides of lengths a, b and c has a right angle between the a and b legs when the numbers are a Pythagorean triple. Right angles have various practical applications, such as surveying, carpentry, masonry and construction. Fermat's Last Theorem is an extension of this problem to higher powers, stating that no solution exists when the exponent 2 is replaced by any larger integer.<br /> [edit] Diophantine equations<br /> Main article: Diophantine equation</p> <p>Fermat's equation xn + yn = zn is an example of a Diophantine equation.[6] A Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation in which the solutions must be integers.[7] Their name derives from the 3rd-century Alexandrian mathematician, Diophantus, who developed methods for their solution. A typical Diophantine problem is to find two integers x and y such that their sum, and the sum of their squares, equal two given numbers A and B, respectively:</p> <p> A = x + y\ <br /> B = x^2 + y^2\ </p> <p>Diophantus' major work is the Arithmetica, of which only a portion has survived.[8] Fermat's conjecture of his Last Theorem was inspired while reading a new edition of the Arithmetica,[9] which was translated into Latin and published in 1621 by Claude Bachet.[10]</p> <p>Diophantine equations have been studied for thousands of years. For example, the solutions to the quadratic Diophantine equation x2 + y2 = z2 are given by the Pythagorean triples, originally solved by the Babylonians (c. 1800 BC).[11] Solutions to linear Diophantine equations, such as 26x + 65y = 13, may be found using the Euclidean algorithm (c. 5th century BC).[12] Many Diophantine equations have a form similar to the equation of Fermat's Last Theorem from the point of view of algebra, in that they have no cross terms mixing two letters, without sharing its particular properties. For example, it is known that there are infinitely many positive integers x, y, and z such that xn + yn = zm where n and m are relatively prime natural numbers.[note 1]<br /> [edit] Fermat's conjecture<br /> Problem II.8 in the 1621 edition of the Arithmetica of Diophantus. On the right is the famous margin which was too small to contain Fermat's alleged proof of his "last theorem".</p> <p>Problem II.8 of the Arithmetica asks how to split a given square number into two other squares; in other words, for a given rational number k, find rational numbers u and v such that k2 = u2 + v2. Diophantus shows how to solve this sum-of-squares problem for k = 4 (the solutions being u = 16/5 and v = 12/5).[13]</p> <p>Around 1637, Fermat wrote his Last Theorem in the margin of his copy of the Arithmetica next to Diophantus' sum-of-squares problem:[14]<br /> Cubum autem in duos cubos, aut quadratoquadratum in duos quadratoquadratos, et generaliter nullam in infinitum ultra quadratum potestatem in duos eiusdem nominis fas est dividere cuius rei demonstrationem mirabilem sane detexi. Hanc marginis exiguitas non caperet. it is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a fourth power into two fourth powers, or in general, any power higher than the second, into two like powers. I have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this margin is too narrow to contain.[15]</p> <p>Although Fermat's general proof is unknown, his proof of one case (n = 4) by infinite descent has survived.[16] Fermat posed the cases of n = 4 and of n = 3 as challenges to his mathematical correspondents, such as Marin Mersenne, Blaise Pascal, and John Wallis.[17] However, in the last thirty years of his life, Fermat never again wrote of his "truly marvellous proof" of the general case.</p> <p>After Fermat's death in 1665, his son Clment-Samuel Fermat produced a new edition of the book (1670) augmented with his father's comments.[18] The margin note became known as Fermat's Last Theorem,[19] as it was the last of Fermat's asserted theorems to remain unproven.[20]<br /> [edit] Proofs for specific exponents<br /> Main article: Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem for specific exponents</p> <p>Only one mathematical proof by Fermat has survived, in which Fermat uses the technique of infinite descent to show that the area of a right triangle with integer sides can never equal the square of an integer.[21] His proof is equivalent to demonstrating that the equation</p> <p> x4 - y4 = z2</p> <p>has no primitive solutions in integers (no pairwise coprime solutions). In turn, this proves Fermat's Last Theorem for the case n=4, since the equation a4 + b4 = c4 can be written as c4 - b4 = (a2)2. For a version of Fermat's proof by infinite descent, see Infinite descent#Non-solvability of r2 + s4 = t4. For various proofs by infinite descent, see Grant and Perella (1999),[22] Barbara (2007),[23] and Dolan (2011).[24]</p> <p>Alternative proofs of the case n = 4 were developed later[25] by Frnicle de Bessy (1676),[26] Leonhard Euler (1738),[27] Kausler (1802),[28] Peter Barlow (1811),[29] Adrien-Marie Legendre (1830),[30] Schopis (1825),[31] Terquem (1846),[32] Joseph Bertrand (1851),[33] Victor Lebesgue (1853, 1859, 1862),[34] Theophile Pepin (1883),[35] Tafelmacher (1893),[36] David Hilbert (1897),[37] Bendz (1901),[38] Gambioli (1901),[39] Leopold Kronecker (1901),[40] Bang (1905),[41] Sommer (1907),[42] Bottari (1908),[43] Karel Rychlk (1910),[44] Nutzhorn (1912),[45] Robert Carmichael (1913),[46] Hancock (1931),[47] and Vranceanu (1966).[48]</p> <p>After Fermat proved the special case n = 4, the general proof for all n required only that the theorem be established for all odd prime exponents.[49] In other words, it was necessary to prove only that the equation an + bn = cn has no integer solutions (a, b, c) when n is an odd prime number. This follows because a solution (a, b, c) for a given n is equivalent to a solution for all the factors of n. For illustration, let n be factored into d and e, n = de. The general equation</p> <p> an + bn = cn</p> <p>implies that (ad, bd, cd) is a solution for the exponent e</p> <p> (ad)e + (bd)e = (cd)e</p> <p>Thus, to prove that Fermat's equation has no solutions for n > 2, it suffices to prove that it has no solutions for at least one prime factor of every n. All integers n > 2 contain a factor of 4, or an odd prime number, or both. Therefore, Fermat's Last Theorem can be proven for all n if it can be proven for n = 4 and for all odd primes (the only even prime number is the number 2) p.</p> <p>In the two centuries following its conjecture (1637C1839), Fermat's Last Theorem was proven for three odd prime exponents p = 3, 5 and 7. The case p = 3 was first stated by Abu-Mahmud Khojandi (10th century), but his attempted proof of the theorem was incorrect.[50] In 1770, Leonhard Euler gave a proof of p = 3,[51] but his proof by infinite descent[52] contained a major gap.[53] However, since Euler himself had proven the lemma necessary to complete the proof in other work, he is generally credited with the first proof.[54] Independent proofs were published[55] by Kausler (1802),[28] Legendre (1823, 1830),[30][56] Calzolari (1855),[57] Gabriel Lam (1865),[58] Peter Guthrie Tait (1872),[59] Gnther (1878),[60] Gambioli (1901),[39] Krey (1909),[61] Rychlk (1910),[44] Stockhaus (1910),[62] Carmichael (1915),[63] Johannes van der Corput (1915),[64] Axel Thue (1917),[65] and Duarte (1944).[66] The case p = 5 was proven[67] independently by Legendre and Peter Dirichlet around 1825.[68] Alternative proofs were developed[69] by Carl Friedrich Gauss (1875, posthumous),[70] Lebesgue (1843),[71] Lam (1847),[72] Gambioli (1901),[39][73] Werebrusow (1905),[74] Rychlk (1910),[75] van der Corput (1915),[64] and Guy Terjanian (1987).[76] The case p = 7 was proven[77] by Lam in 1839.[78] His rather complicated proof was simplified in 1840 by Lebesgue,[79] and still simpler proofs[80] were published by Angelo Genocchi in 1864, 1874 and 1876.[81] Alternative proofs were developed by Thophile Ppin (1876)[82] and Edmond Maillet (1897).[83]</p> <p>Fermat's Last Theorem has also been proven for the exponents n = 6, 10, and 14. Proofs for n = 6 have been published by Kausler,[28] Thue,[84] Tafelmacher,[85] Lind,[86] Kapferer,[87] Swift,[88] and Breusch.[89] Similarly, Dirichlet[90] and Terjanian[91] each proved the case n = 14, while Kapferer[87] and Breusch[89] each proved the case n = 10. Strictly speaking, these proofs are unnecessary, since these cases follow from the proofs for n = 3, 5, and 7, respectively. Nevertheless, the reasoning of these even-exponent proofs differs from their odd-exponent counterparts. Dirichlet's proof for n = 14 was published in 1832, before Lam's 1839 proof for n = 7.[92]</p> <p>Many proofs for specific exponents use Fermat's technique of infinite descent, which Fermat used to prove the case n = 4, but many do not. However, the details and auxiliary arguments are often ad hoc and tied to the individual exponent under consideration.[93] Since they became ever more complicated as p increased, it seemed unlikely that the general case of Fermat's Last Theorem could be proven by building upon the proofs for individual exponents.[93] Although some general results on Fermat's Last Theorem were published in the early 19th century by Niels Henrik Abel and Peter Barlow,[94][95] the first significant work on the general theorem was done by Sophie Germain.[96]<br /> [edit] Sophie Germain<br /> Main article: Sophie Germain</p> <p>In 1847, Gabriel Lam outlined a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem based on factoring the equation xp + yp = zp in complex numbers, specifically the cyclotomic field based on the roots of the number 1. His proof failed, however, because it assumed incorrectly that such complex numbers can be factored uniquely into primes, similar to integers. This gap was pointed out immediately by Joseph Liouville, who later read a paper that demonstrated this failure of unique factorisation, written by Ernst Kummer.</p> <p>In the 1920s, Louis Mordell posed a conjecture that implied that Fermat's equation has at most a finite number of nontrivial primitive integer solutions if the exponent n is greater than two.[101] This conjecture was proven in 1983 by Gerd Faltings,[102] and is now known as Faltings' theorem.<br /> [edit] Rational exponents</p> <p>All solutions of the Diophantine equation an / m + bn / m = cn / m when n=1 were computed by Lenstra in 1992.[103] In 2004, for n>2, Bennett, Glass, and Szekely proved that if gcd(n,m)=1, then there are integer solutions if and only if 6 divides m, and a1 / m, b1 / m, and c1 / m are different complex 6th roots of the same real number.[104]<br /> [edit] Computational studies</p> <p>In the latter half of the 20th century, computational methods were used to extend Kummer's approach to the irregular primes. In 1954, Harry Vandiver used a SWAC computer to prove Fermat's Last Theorem for all primes up to 2521.[105] By 1978, Samuel Wagstaff had extended this to all primes less than 125,000.[106] By 1993, Fermat's Last Theorem had been proven for all primes less than four million.[107]<br /> [edit] Connection with elliptic curves</p> <p>The ultimately successful strategy for proving Fermat's Last Theorem was by proving the modularity theorem. The strategy was first described by Gerhard Frey in 1984.[108] Frey noted that if Fermat's equation had a solution (a, b, c) for exponent p > 2, the corresponding elliptic curve[note 2]</p> <p> y2 = x (x - ap)(x + bp)</p> <p>would have such unusual properties that the curve would likely violate the modularity theorem.[109] This theorem, first conjectured in the mid-1950s and gradually refined through the 1960s, states that every elliptic curve is modular, meaning that it can be associated with a unique modular form.</p> <p>Following this strategy, the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem required two steps. First, it was necessary to show that Frey's intuition was correct, that the above elliptic curve is always non-modular. Frey did not succeed in proving this rigorously; the missing piece was identified by Jean-Pierre Serre. This missing piece, the so-called "epsilon conjecture", was proven by Ken Ribet in 1986. Second, it was necessary to prove a special case of the modularity theorem. This special case (for semistable elliptic curves) was proven by Andrew Wiles in 1995.</p> <p>Thus, the epsilon conjecture showed that any solution to Fermat's equation could be used to generate a non-modular semistable elliptic curve, whereas Wiles' proof showed that all such elliptic curves must be modular. This contradiction implies that there can be no solutions to Fermat's equation, thus proving Fermat's Last Theorem.<br /> [edit] Wiles' general proof<br /> British mathematician Andrew Wiles<br /> Main article: Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem</p> <p>Ribet's proof of the epsilon conjecture in 1986 accomplished the first half of Frey's strategy for proving Fermat's Last Theorem. Upon hearing of Ribet's proof, Andrew Wiles decided to commit himself to accomplishing the second half: proving a special case of the modularity theorem (then known as the TaniyamaCShimura conjecture) for semistable elliptic curves.[110] Wiles worked on that task for six years in almost complete secrecy. He based his initial approach on his area of expertise, Horizontal Iwasawa theory, but by the summer of 1991, this approach seemed inadequate to the task.[111] In response, he exploited an Euler system recently developed by Victor Kolyvagin and Matthias Flach. Since Wiles was unfamiliar with such methods, he asked his Princeton colleague, Nick Katz, to check his reasoning over the spring semester of 1993.[112]</p> <p>By mid-1993, Wiles was sufficiently confident of his results that he presented them in three lectures delivered on June 21C23, 1993 at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences.[113] Specifically, Wiles presented his proof of the TaniyamaCShimura conjecture for semistable elliptic curves; together with Ribet's proof of the epsilon conjecture, this implied Fermat's Last Theorem. However, it soon became apparent that Wiles' initial proof was incorrect. A critical portion of the proof contained an error in a bound on the order of a particular group. The error was caught by several mathematicians refereeing Wiles' manuscript,[114] including Katz, who alerted Wiles on 23 August 1993.[115]</p> <p>Wiles and his former student Richard Taylor spent almost a year trying to repair the proof, without success.[116] On 19 September 1994, Wiles had a flash of insight that the proof could be saved by returning to his original Horizontal Iwasawa theory approach, which he had abandoned in favour of the KolyvaginCFlach approach.[117] On 24 October 1994, Wiles submitted two manuscripts, "Modular elliptic curves and Fermat's Last Theorem"[118] and "Ring theoretic properties of certain Hecke algebras",[119] the second of which was co-authored with Taylor. The two papers were vetted and published as the entirety of the May 1995 issue of the Annals of Mathematics. These papers established the modularity theorem for semistable elliptic curves, the last step in proving Fermat's Last Theorem, 358 years after it was conjectured.<br /> [edit] Did Fermat possess a general proof?</p> <p>The mathematical techniques used in Fermat's "marvelous" proof are unknown. Only one detailed proof of Fermat has survived, the above proof that no three coprime integers (x, y, z) satisfy the equation x4 - y4 = z4.</p> </div> </div> <div class="txtblock"> <h1>Scrollable div (with wrapper div), custom color and zoom feature</h1> <p>You can call zoom-in/zoom-out with double click on div or click on the upper icon (or use pitch gesture on ipad). When you use wrapper, Nicescroll try to enable hardware accelerated scrolling.</p> <div id="divexample2"> <div id="wrapperexample2"> <p>Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California.[30]</p> <p>While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between websites.[31] They called this new technology PageRank, where a website's relevance was determined by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages, that linked back to the original site.[32][33]</p> <p>A small search engine called "RankDex" from IDD Information Services designed by Robin Li was, since 1996, already exploring a similar strategy for site-scoring and page ranking.[34] The technology in RankDex would be patented[35] and used later when Li founded Baidu in China.[36][37]</p> <p>Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site.[38][39][40]</p> <p>Eventually, they changed the name to Google, originating from a misspelling of the word "googol",[41][42] the number one followed by one hundred zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine wants to provide large quantities of information for people.[43] Originally, Google ran under the Stanford University website, with the domain google.stanford.edu.[44]</p> <p>The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997,[45] and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in a friend's (Susan Wojcicki[30]) garage in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee.[30][46][47]</p> <p>In May 2011, unique visitors of Google surpassed 1 billion mark for the first time, an 8.4 percent increase from a year ago with 931 million unique visitors.[48]<br /> Financing and initial public offering<br /> Google's first servers, showing lots of exposed wiring and circuit boards<br /> The first iteration of Google production servers was built with inexpensive hardware[49]</p> <p>The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of US$100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was even incorporated.[50] Early in 1999, while still graduate students, Brin and Page decided that the search engine they had developed was taking up too much of their time from academic pursuits. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million. He rejected the offer, and later criticized Vinod Khosla, one of Excite's venture capitalists, after he had negotiated Brin and Page down to $750,000. On June 7, 1999, a $25 million round of funding was announced,[51] with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital.[50]</p> <p>Google's initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later on August 19, 2004. The company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share.[52][53] Shares were sold in a unique online auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the deal.[54][55] The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion.[56] The vast majority of the 271 million shares remained under the control of Google, and many Google employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of Google, also benefited because it owned 8.4 million shares of Google before the IPO took place.[57]</p> <p>Some people speculated that Google's IPO would inevitably lead to changes in company culture. Reasons ranged from shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions to the fact that many company executives would become instant paper millionaires.[58] As a reply to this concern, co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised in a report to potential investors that the IPO would not change the company's culture.[59] In 2005, however, articles in The New York Times and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy.[60][61][62] In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on: a flat organization with a collaborative environment.[63] Google has also faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees.[64][65]</p> <p>The stock's performance after the IPO went well, with shares hitting $700 for the first time on October 31, 2007,[66] primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market.[67] The surge in stock price was fueled mainly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds.[67] The company is now listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol GOOG and under the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1.<br /> Growth</p> <p>In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, California, home to several other noted Silicon Valley technology startups.[68] The next year, against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine,[69] Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords.[30] In order to maintain an uncluttered page design and increase speed, advertisements were solely text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bids and click-throughs, with bidding starting at five cents per click.[30] This model of selling keyword advertising was first pioneered by Goto.com, an Idealab spin-off created by Bill Gross.[70][71] When the company changed names to Overture Services, it sued Google over alleged infringements of the company's pay-per-click and bidding patents. Overture Services would later be bought by Yahoo! and renamed Yahoo! Search Marketing. The case was then settled out of court, with Google agreeing to issue shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license.[72]</p> <p>During this time, Google was granted a patent describing its PageRank mechanism.[73] The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased its current office complex from Silicon Graphics at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California.[74] The complex has since come to be known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. The Googleplex interiors were designed by Clive Wilkinson Architects. Three years later, Google would buy the property from SGI for $319 million.[75] By that time, the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "google" to be added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."[76][77]<br /> Acquisitions and partnerships<br /> See also: List of acquisitions by Google</p> <p>Since 2001, Google has acquired many companies, mainly focusing on small venture capital companies. In 2004, Google acquired Keyhole, Inc.[78] The start-up company developed a product called Earth Viewer that gave a three-dimensional view of the Earth. Google renamed the service to Google Earth in 2005. Two years later, Google bought the online video site YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock.[79] On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $3.1 billion, giving Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies.[80] Later that same year, Google purchased GrandCentral for $50 million.[81] The site would later be changed over to Google Voice. On August 5, 2009, Google bought out its first public company, purchasing video software maker On2 Technologies for $106.5 million.[82] Google also acquired Aardvark, a social network search engine, for $50 million, and commented on its internal blog, "we're looking forward to collaborating to see where we can take it".[83] In April 2010, Google announced it had acquired a hardware startup, Agnilux.[84]</p> <p>In addition to the many companies Google has purchased, the company has partnered with other organizations for everything from research to advertising. In 2005, Google partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to build 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of offices.[85] The offices would be used for research projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology, distributed computing, and the entrepreneurial space industry. Google entered into a partnership with Sun Microsystems in October 2005 to help share and distribute each other's technologies.[86] The company also partnered with AOL of Time Warner,[87] to enhance each other's video search services. Google's 2005 partnerships also included financing the new .mobi top-level domain for mobile devices, along with other companies including Microsoft, Nokia, and Ericsson.[88] Google would later launch "Adsense for Mobile", taking advantage of the emerging mobile advertising market.[89] Increasing its advertising reach even further, Google and Fox Interactive Media of News Corporation entered into a $900 million agreement to provide search and advertising on popular social networking site MySpace.[90]</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>

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